THE HISTORY OF THE SEVEN YEARS WAR
The seven years war started in New France with the Battle of Jumonville Glen. Then there was Battle of Monongahela in May, 1755 in which the English under General Braddock were defeated at Fort Duquesne by the French. But later the French were defeated at the Battle of the Plains of Abraham and, at the end of the war, gave New France to Great Britain.
Meanwhile the Seven Years War was also raging in Europe. Britain, Hungary, and Prussia(Germany) had allied against France, Austria, and Russia. France struck first and captured the island of Minorca. Prussia then attacked Saxony hoping to gain more more territories. The Austrians tried to help Saxony but were unable to oppose the much larger Prussian army. Finally, Saxony surrendered and joined the already huge Prussian army.
Also, Hanover was fighting France and Britain supplied Prussia with soldiers, weapons, and money. Twice when Prussia was about to be destroyed, they were saved by two miracles that Fredrick 111, the king of Prussia, called the Miracles of the House of Brandenburg. By this time, England started winning an impressive string of victories in Europe and North America.
Russia and France finally made peace with Prussia, which left Austria to defend for itself. But Great Britain had had enough and demanded that Prussia stop fighting or England would break the alliance. Since England supplied Prussia with supplies that they needed, Prussia had no choice but to end the fighting.
In the Seven Years War, nothing was accomplished because the treaty was organised ‘status quo ante bellum’ which meant that all the lands gained in the war had to be given back to their previous owners. That meant that Europe was back were it was before the war. Although in great debt, the major winner was the British Empire which gained numerous new colonies, while the major loser was France as their once strong navy was destroyed.
A SUMMARY OF THE AMERICAN WAR FOR INDEPENDENCE
After the Seven Year’s War, Great Britain was in a great deal of debt to pay for troops and supplies. So Britain started raising the taxes on it’s colonies. Soon there were so many taxes, that there were taxes for almost everything! The colonists said that this gone to far, so they drafted a list of grievances to King George V. George ignored it and raised the taxes still higher and put a tax on tea. In Britain, people are big in drinking tea, so George and parliament thought that surely the people would pay that tax. But, instead they left the tea on the docks or would not even let the ships unload their tea. This created great tension between Britain and the colonies and the colonies started forming resistance groups named ‘the sons of liberty’.
In a 1775, one such band, disguised as Indians, boarded East India Company tea ships in the Boston harbor and threw all 453 barrels and casks of tea into the sea. This action, known as the Boston Tea Party greatly angered Parliament and they imposed severe penalties on the state of Massachusetts. But, the other colonies, seeing that this could happen to them to, started stockpiling weapons and training minute men in case of war.
Finally, the British sent over a large army to Boston. The British started planning an attack on the stores in Lexington and Concord but Paul Revere and his friend heard heard about it. After his friend hung the two lamps in the church tower, Paul Revere began his famous ride to warn the people of the advance of the British regiment. By the time the British had arrived at Lexington, a handful of minute men were there to oppose them.
The regiment easily defeated them and pushed on to Concord. When they reached Concord they besieged it, and within a few hours Concord gave up and let the British in. Meanwhile the colonists had gathered on the river outside Concord. When the colonists saw the British in Concord, they charged the British guards on duty and then swarmed into the town of Concord and defeated the surprised British. The British fled the town and quickly marched to Boston. They stayed in the city while the colonists who were able camped outside while the rest all went back to their homes.
This obviously infuriated Parliament, and Britain sent a much larger army for an all out war on the colonists. The army joined the previous army hemmed up in Boston with thousands of militiamen surrounding the city. Then the British army attacked Bunker and Breeds hill and, with many casualties, defeated the militiamen on the hills.
Benedict Arnold then led the colonial troops into Canada capturing Fort Ticonderoga and winning the battle of Valcour Island. Then the war went back and forth with the British winning some battles and then Washington winning some battles. Then the colonists won some major victories at Trenton, Princeton, and Saratoga which was the turning point of the war. At Saratoga 5,700 British troops to Major General Horatio Gates.
Then General Greene, commander of the southern campaign, forced Cornwallis to move quickly wearing down his troops and supply line. The British retreated to Yorktown and since their supplies had to be shipped from Britain, their ammunition was running low. After the Battle of Capes, which resulted in the defeat of the British Navy at the hands of the French fleet, Lord Cornwallis surrendered to George Washington which ended the War for Independence.
The treaty of Paris was signed in 1783 and declared the United States to be a sovereign nation.
The colonists fighting at the Battle of Bunker Hill
Washington crossing the Delaware River before the Battle of Trenton
A SUMMARY OF THE FRENCH REVOLUTION
The French tried to copy the colonists in the American War for Independence with their own war for independence, the French Revolution. But, their were many differences in the French Revolution and the American War for Independence, which resulted in many pheasants murdering many of the wealthy and powerful classes in France for no reason but to have a change, and at the end nothing changed!
The people of France, particularly the pheasants, thought they needed a revolution when they saw how well the American Revolutionary War went, so they finally broke out in rebellion against the nobles and King without a valid reason for doing so. They stormed the Prison of Bastille in Paris and created armed rebellion. King Louis XVI tried fleeing from France to Austria but was caught, put in prison, and later executed.
Then the people set up a new government and created the Declaration of Rights. The death of King Louis XVI created much anger in the rest of Europe, and France was soon fighting Austria, Prussia, and Sardinia.
Napoleon Bonaparte ended the French Revolution when he assumed power and led France through the Napoleonic Wars. But, after his defeat in the Battle of Waterloo by the British, who were reinforced by Prussian fighters, all the lands Napoleon had gained in his wars were returned to their former owners.
PRESIDENT THOMAS JEFFERSON
Thomas Jefferson was a planter, lawyer, scientist, governor, vice president, and author. And he was also the 3rd president of the United States.
Thomas Jefferson was born on April 13, 1743 in Shadwell central Virginia. His father died when he was 14, but he left Jefferson with a love of books, mathematics, and the outdoors.
In 1760 he entered the College of William and Mary and after he graduated, he went on to study law. He also designed and built Monticello his plantation. Jefferson was also elected to Congress and wrote the Declaration of Independence.
Jefferson and Adams ran against each other in the Presidential election of 1801 and Jefferson won. He served two terms as president and during that time he negotiated the Louisiana Purchase with Napoleon, which doubled the size of the United States.
In 1807, as tensions rose with Britain, he issued the Embargo Act. The act was supposed to hurt Britain by not allowing any exports to Britain. But this hurt American traders more than Britain so it was repealed. He also designed and founded the University of Virginia and served as it’s first president.
At the end of his second term, Jefferson retired to his beloved home at Monticello where he pursued his interests in astronomy, reading, designing, and landscaping. Thomas Jefferson died on July 4th ,1826 at Monticello at the age of 83. This date was also the fiftieth anniversary of the signing of the Declaration of Independence.
PRESIDENT JOHN QUINCY ADAMS
John Adams (1767-1848) was the first President who was the son of a President. He was born in Brain-tree, Massachusetts in 1767. Adams became an accomplished and distinguished secretary to his father in Europe. After graduating from Harvard he became a lawyer. Adams was also given the appointment as Minister to the Netherlands and the age of 26 and in 1802, he was voted into the United States Senate.
Under President Monroe, Adams was valuable in arranging with England for the joint ownership of the Oregon county. He also President Monroe make the Monroe Doctrine.
Now, in the political tradition of the early 19th Century, Adams was considered the political heir to the presidency. But Adams, the candidate of the North, fell behind General Andrew Jackson in electoral votes. Since no candidate had a majority of electoral votes, the election was decided among the top three by the House of Representatives. Adams and Jackson won out even so that in the last vote, Henry Clay, who supported a program like that of Adams, put his vote for Adams making John Adams a one vote majority.
At once, President Adams made Clay his Secretary of State. He also proposed that the United States bring states together using highways and canals. In 1828, he started the digging for the 185 mile C&O Canal. Adams urged for a lead in the arts and sciences the the establishment of a national university, financing of scientific expeditions, and the building of an observatory.
In 1828 Adams lost the election and Andrew Jackson became President. John Adams retired to his home in Massachusetts and died in 1848.
IMPORTANT 19TH CENTURY INVENTIONS
The Industrial Revolution was a time in which there were many new inventions being invented. Four main characteristics mark the Industrial Revolution: the invention and use of steam power, the improvement of machine tools, iron production and other processes, and the introduction of coal as a power source. The following paragraphs describe some important 19th century inventions.
In 1804, the locomotive was invented by Richard Trevithick. The use of steam to propel a train quickly revolutionized America and opened the west for settlers.
By 1807 the steamboat was invented by Robert Fulton. Steam powered boats were a huge improvement to being at the mercy of the wind.
Then, in 1831, electromagnetic induction was invented by Michael Faraday. The basic principle was a magnet used to produce electricity and motion. In another 55 years the first DC electric motor was invented and electricity was used for a useful purpose.
Morse Code was invented in 1836 by Samuel Morse. It sent messages through a wire by tapping dots and dashes on a special device called a telegraph, and could send messages faster than it ever took a Pony Express rider.
Another invention was the steam hammer invented by James Naismith in 1843. The hammer was generally used for driving piles.
Alexander Graham Bell invented and patented his invention of the telephone and communication became even better than the telegraph.
Finally, the first light bulb was invented by Thomas Edison in 1879.
THE MEXICAN-AMERICAN WAR
After the Texas Revolution, Texas applied to the U.S. Government for annexation as a state in 1836 but was denied due to arguments between slave and free states. Mexico had also said the it would go to war if Texas was added as a state. Despite this fact, President John Tyler supported the annexation and finalized everything except the paperwork, and President James K. Polk annexed Texas to the United States on December 29, 1845.
Polk tried to also purchase more territory from Mexico but was denied by the unstable government. Polk then sparked a war by his moving U.S. troops in the disputed territory between Mexico and Texas.
Then a Mexican cavalry attacked the troops under General Zachary Taylor on April 25, 1846. Congress then declared war on Mexico even though Mexico never declared war on the U.S. during that time.
The United States sent General Kearny and Stockton to the Rio Grande area and very quickly subdued that part of the land because there weren’t many Mexicans living their.
Santa Anna then escaped where he had been exiled after the Texas revolution, returned the Mexico, and again became President of Mexico. He organized a large army and marched to face U.S. General Zachary Taylor’s men in the biggest battle of the war, the Battle of Buena Vista. Taylor’s army was way outnumbered by the Mexican army and was on the point of retreating when, as a last resort, he moved up a reinforcement artillery battalion which kept the Mexicans at bay.
Meanwhile, another U.S. General, Winfield Scott marched against Mexico City and by September 1847 he was in control of it. The Mexicans soon surrendered and the treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo was signed which gave the United States many new previously Mexican territories in the south west.
THE BOMBARDMENT OF FORT SUMTER
Fort Sumter was an island fortress in Charleston Harbor, South Carolina and is famous as the site of the first shots of the Civil War. The fort still hadn’t been finished when, on December 1860, U.S. Major Robert Anderson left the nearby fort Moultrie and with his two companies of troops took up quarters in Fort Sumter. This took place just after South Carolina succeeded (left) the Union and joined the Confederate States (C.S.) so fort Sumter was the last U.S. Fort in the state.
When President Lincoln sent three unarmed supply ships to Fort Sumter, the Confederates demanded that Anderson leave the fort and on his refusal, they opened a 34-hour artillery barrage on the fort on April 12, 1861. Anderson surrendered the fort the next day with no casualties on either side except when a Union soldier was accidentally killed when some gunpowder exploded.
For Sumter remained in Confederate hands for nearly four years before it was abandoned just prior to William Sherman’s capture of Charleston on February 1865. The fort saw later use during the Spanish-American War, World War I and World War II.
CIVIL WAR GENERALS
Ulysses Simpson Grant was born in 1822 and went on to be the top general of all the Union Armies. He organized and led the army to victory in most battles he fought. He was a brilliant tactician and commander which proved effective in his Western campaigns. While Grant kept Lee busy at Petersburg, he helped to coordinate the Shenandoah and Atlanta campaigns to destroy the Confederacy. In 1869, at age 46, Grant became the person to be the youngest president at the time. He served two terms as the 18th president and maintained prosperity during his first term, though his second term was marked by the Panic of 1873, a severe national depression.
Robert E. Lee was the chief commander of the Confederate forces in the Civil War from 1862 until the end of the war. Despite his personal desire for the states to remain united, he followed his home state of Virginia and turned down a position in the U.S. army. Lee was calculated and brave in the midst of battle which gained him many victories. But despite his skill, he was unable to fight much longer against the much larger Union Force and surrendered to Grant in 1865. After the war, Lee became president of Washington University and was known for his high moral standards and Christian faith.
William Tecumseh Sherman was born in 1820 and was an American soldier, businessman, educator, and author. He was known for his “scorched earth” tactics particularly during his Atlanta Campaign and his march to the sea. Sherman served under General Grant from 1862-63, before being promoted to general of the west where he enjoyed great success. Sherman was elected general of the army, when Grant became President.
Thomas Jackson, better know as “Stonewall Jackson” was born in 1842 and is the best-known Confederate general after Robert E. Lee. He graduated from the Virginia Military Institute and later returned to teach at the school. When fighting, Jackson was Lee’s right hand man until his accidental death a Chancellorsville. He was known for his integrity and Christian faith which was evidenced in all he did. Military historians consider Jackson as one of the most gifted tactical commander and his bravery is shown by his nick-name.
THE INDIAN WARS IN THE WEST
At this point in history, there have been many changes in the western United States with the transcontinental railroad, the telegraph, and homestead acts. But, to be able to make room for these new settlers, the government had to move the Indians from these lands. This was done forcefully and illegally, but none of the Indian tribes were able to resist for long.
Most of these wars happened between 1830 and 1890 and the result of the wars was the confinement of the tribes to small reservations or the near extinction of the tribe. And, most of the causes were based on the greed of the white settlers who in turn justified it by their manifest destiny ideology.
The Navajo Wars were among the longest and bloodiest of the Indian Wars; they were fought against the Spanish, Mexicans, and Americans as the land changed ownership over time. The Apache and Navajo Wars took place in Arizona, Texas, New Mexico, and Mexico between 1849 and 1886. Many of the Apache and Navajo Indians had been Native Mexicans until the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo turned them into Native Americans. As settlers continued moving westward, the Apache and Navajo resisted them on many occasions. Arizona was the bloodiest of the western states, both in number of battles and casualties in any other state.
The Indian Wars were unnecessary and unjust which resulted in many deaths on both sides. Eventually all the Native Americans were collected and forced to remain confined on reservations and violence ended after 1890.
IMMIGRATION TO AMERICA
After the Civil War, America faced a challenge a challenge to get going again and move ahead. But after the success of industrialism in America the gap quickly closed up. Soon, America became the fastest growing nation economically which attracted many new immigrants. Whether for economic, political, or religious reasons, these immigrants flocked to the United States in search of a better life.
Ellis Island, a small island in New York Harbor, started out as just 3 acres of sandy soil. The Federal government purchased Ellis Island from New York state in 1803, just before the War of 1812, and a small fort was erected on the Island. Until 1890, immigration was the responsibility of each state, so when the government took control it established new immigration stations. Ellis Island became the new main immigration station and buildings were built on the Island. The new structure opened on January 1, 1892, but after 5 years in operation, the main buildings burned down and many immigration records were lost.
The Federal government ordered the new building to be fireproof and construction was finished in 1900. 2,251 immigrants were processed on it’s first day of operation and in the peak year of 1907, over 1.25 million immigrants were processed on Ellis Island that year. The Island was enlarged over time by reusing the dirt from the New York subway system to a total of 27.5 acres. Ellis Island was declared to be part of the Statue of Liberty Monument in 1965 and has been a museum since 1990. The massive influx of immigrants may have been sparked by the growing influence and economy of America. But it is certain that America would not have continued to grow at such a pace without so many immigrants. Even today, nearly 40% of all Americans can trace their heritage to at least one person who passed through Ellis Island.
Famed automobile manufacturer, Henry Ford was born on July 30, 1863 on his family farm in Wayne County, Michigan. When Ford was 13 years old, his father gave him a pocket watch which he took apart and reassembled. Friends and neighbors were impressed, and requested that he fix their timepieces too.
Unsatisfied with farm work, Ford left home at the age of 16 to take an apprenticeship as a machinist in Detroit. In the following years he would learn to operate and service steam engines, and would also study bookkeeping.
Three years later, he was hired as an engineer for the Edison Illuminating Company. In 1893, his natural talents earned him a promotion to chief engineer. Meanwhile, Ford was developing his plans for a horseless carriage, and in 1896, he built his first model, the Ford Quadricycle. That same year, he attended a meeting with Edison’s executives and presented his automobile plans to Thomas Edison. He encouraged Ford to build a second, better model.
After a few trials building cars, in 1903, Henry Ford established the Ford Motor Company. Ford introduced the Model T in October 1808, and for several years, the company posted 100% gains.
However, more than for his profit, Ford became renowned for his revolutionary vision: the manufacture of an inexpensive automobile made by skilled workers who earn steady wages. In 1914, he sponsored the development of the moving assembly line technique of mass production. Simultaneously, he introduced the $5-per-day ($110 in 2011) as a method of keeping the best workers loyal to his company. Simple to drive and cheap to repair, half of all cars in America in 1918 were Model T’s.
Henry Ford died of a hemorrhage on April 7, 1947, at the age of 83, near his Dearborn estate. Ford, considered one of America’s leading businessmen, is credited today for building America’s economy during the nation’s vulnerable years.
THE SPANISH-AMERICAN WAR
The Spanish-American War (1898) was a conflict between the United States and Spain that ended colonial rule in the Americas and resulted in U.S. acquisition of territories in the western Pacific and Latin America.
The Cuban War of Independence from Spain had started in 1895, and for supposed humanitarian reasons, the United States started interfering in the war on the side of Cuba. But it is also evident that there was a large exaggeration on the part of American journalists as to the Spanish treating of Cuban civilians. There were also American civilians on the island of Cuba and it was thought necessary to send a battleship, the USS Maine, to protect America’s interests. But what the United States was really doing was reaching out of it’s boundaries and interfering in a conflict where it had no business.
Just after the USS Maine arrived in the harbor of Havana Cuba on January 25, 1898, it mysteriously sunk three weeks later. The U.S. Government quickly used this as an excuse to start a war with Spain. At this point, Spain still had territories in Cuba, Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Philippines.
So starting in the Pacific Ocean, the Unites States deployed its Navy fleet and destroyed in a few hours the much weaker Spanish fleet. The U.S. Navy then went on to Manila Bay in the Philippines where they defeated the Spanish, kept the revolutionaries away, and gained control of the islands. As with the Philippines, the U.S. took over Guam and left the only American civilian on the island in charge while the Navy went on and conquered Puerto Rico. So after several battles including the Battle of Las Guasimas, Battle of San Juan Hill, and the Naval invasion of Santiago Bay, the Americans gained control control of Cuba.
After being defeated in Cuba and the Philippines, Spain had no Navy and no interest in continuing the the fight. So after just 10 weeks of fighting, Spain and the United States signed the Treaty of Paris 1898 which stated the the U.S. gained control of all Spain’s territories outside of Africa.
THE CAUSES OF WORLD WAR I
The most commonly known cause of World War I is the assassination of the Austrian empire’s heir, Archduke Franz Ferdinand, on June 28, 1914 in Bosnia. But the way so many countries got caught up in this debate goes back to the mid-1800’s and a series of wars and alliances.
The first of the conflicts to understand is the Austro-Prussian War, which lasted 10 weeks in 1866, and was to decide which of the German states would become the dominant leaders. Dating back to the Middle Ages, many small states organized into the Holy Roman Empire, with an elected emperor governing the empire. After the H.R.E. collapsed, a prolonged series of rivalries between the states culminated in the Austro-Prussian War. Prussia won a huge victory over previously dominant Austria, and following the war, Prussia instigated an alliance with Russia and Austria-Hungary, called the League of 3 Emperors. The treaty, which was made in 1873, allowed Prussia (Germany) to focus on building it’s economy without worrying about war from its powerful neighbors.
Prussia’s emperor, Otto Von Bismark, was determined to build as many alliances as he possibly could, so he organized the Dual Alliance with Austria-Hungary. And this idea was also to prevent being surprised by Europe’s other powers. The Dual Alliance was then expanded in 1882 to include Italy, who itself had just become a unified country and could not afford a war. The core of this now Triple Alliance was the growing superpower of Prussia which had overtaken every country except Britain in terms of military and manufacturing power.
France and Russia, Prussia’s closest neighbors, felt threatened and though previously enemies, agreed to the Franco-Russian Alliance in 1884 to start a balance to the powerful Triple Alliance. Finally Britain joined the Franco-Russian Alliance to form the Triple Entente despite the fact that Britain had stayed out of politics on mainland Europe. But Prussia’s army and navy had started threatening British colonies, so the three countries of Britain, France, and Russia put aside their differences for war with Prussia.
This brings us up to 1907 in Western Europe, but it does not tell what sparked off this growing tension. A region called the Balkans was right between Austria-Hungary, Russia, and the waning Ottoman Empire. The Ottomans had lost Greece and the Balkans during the mid-1800’s but in 1912-1913, Bulgaria, Serbia, Greece, and Montenegro allied against the Ottoman Empire pushed it out of Europe completely, dividing up the conquered territory. With the Ottoman Empire gone, the Balkan countries weakened the area by fighting among themselves. Later, Serbia contrived a pseudo-alliance with Russia, which promised aid if Serbia was attacked by Austria-Hungary. Which brings us back to the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand in 1914.
Though a few of the countries of Europe remained neutral, most of the continent was about to explode in a World War. Because the heir to Austria was assassinated by a Serbian, it resulted in a threat of war from Austria-Hungary against Serbia, who called for Russian help. Then it was a domino effect as Russia and Austria called in their allies (the Triple Entente on the side of Russia, and the Triple Alliance on the side of Austria) to decide which of the powers of Europe would survive and which would be destroyed.
THE HISTORY AND BATTLES OF WORLD WAR I
World War I caused a large upheaval and loss in Europe. Germany, France, Russia, and Austria were the most effected by the war and all lost allot of power and influence in the world. But after the humiliation and defeat, all these countries would be fighting in World War II just 20 years later.
The first battle of the war was the Battle of Liege in 1914 when Germany invaded neutral Belgium. Germany then quickly beat the slow Russian Red Army in the Battle of Tannenberg, but was finally brought to a halt in the Battle of Marne, the first battle that Germany lost. But the Germans could not be pushed back, so the Allies and Germans dug a network of trenches and commenced a trench warfare that lasted for the next four years. The Gallipoli Campaign was an attempt to fight and conquer the Ottoman Empire in 1915, but it failed. Then Austria conquered the weak country of Serbia. The battles of Jutland and Verdun both happened in 1916 with Jutland being the only Naval battle ofthe war. Both had inconclusive victors. -Paragraph illustrated in Map of 1916
The Battle of Somme, fought in 1916, had similar results to the Battle of Verdun where both had high casualty rates with hardly any results. After the failure of the Gallipoli Campaign, the British embarked on a campaign into Palestine. Britain soon controlled Palestine while the Arabs rebelled against the Ottomans. This helped lead to the demise of the Ottoman Empire in 1918. Then there was the Battle of Ypres in 1917, which took place in Flanders, but like most of the battles, it resulted in few gains. After Italy left the Triple Alliance, Germany and Austria faced off against it in the Battle of Caporetto. Germany and Austria decimated the Italian Army and ended Italy’s war effort. The Battle of Cambrai was the first major battle in which the United States was involved in 1917, and the battle put the new invention of tanks to use. Despite a good start, it ended in a German victory. The final battle of the war was the Battle of Amiens in 1918. In the battle the Allies reinforced with the United States defeated the Germans and put them in full retreat ending the war. World War I officially ended with the signing of the Treaty of Versailles by Germany and Austria on June 28, 1919. -Paragraph illustrated in Map of 1918
There was also allot of new technology used in World War I. New types of guns like the machine gun and howitzer were used. Aerial combat was also developed from the Wright Flyer to biplanes and triplanes mounted with machine guns and capable of carrying bombs. But what most symbolizes the stalemate battles of the war was in the use of poison gas. The Germans had started using it to try to suffocate the Allies in their trenches. But the Allies just developed new gas masks to protect the soldiers from inhaling the gas. So each side would use poison gas on the other while each side had gas masks to protect them. Obviously it would just be a stalemate war.
As a result of the Paris Peace Conference and the signing of the Treaty of Versailles, the League of Nations was formed on January 10, 1920. It was the first international organization founded to maintain world peace. The U.S. never joined the League and it was discarded in 1946. Many nations in Europe also suffered a famine after the war especially the nations that were involved in the war. Britain and the neutral countries were not affected as they had access to overseas imports. Famine was one of the reasons that Germany had surrendered. There was also the Spanish Flu which killed another 3-5% of the world’s population.
The Treaty of Versailles created allot of bitterness in the German people who were having to pay large reparation costs as all the citizens had to pay for it whether or not they had been actually fighting in the war. This contributed to the fact that World War II was fought just 20 years later.
I will be publishing my last history essays when I have the time…